Tue, 5 February 2008
Hi there, I’m Jack and I’m Romas and welcome back to Lithuanian Out Loud. Here we are in a new month! In English this month is called February. In English we capitalize the first letter of the month, in Lithuanian you generally don’t. The word February comes from the ancient Roman culture and the fact that in this month they held a purification ceremony or a februa. The Lithuanian word for this month is vasaris, it comes from the word for summer or vasara. In the month of vasaris the weather is starting to improve. The days are longer, the nights are shorter, and people are starting to think forward to summer.
The next time the sun warms your face imagine you’re being blessed by the Lithuanian sun goddess Saulė. Saulė is the Lithuanian word for the Sun. According to Britannica Online and Wikipedia, Saulė is also one of the most powerful and well known gods in the old Lithuanian religion. She’s the goddess of life, nature and fertility. Saulė is the protector of all who have had misfortune, especially orphans since she is the only substitute for a mother’s warmth. As a matter of fact, pasaulis is the Lithuanian word for the world, or the place under the sun. Souls of the dead travel with Saulė to a place which was believed to be located behind the horizon. It was considered an offense to point at the sun or moon and when Saulė is shining in the sky, the bad spirits sleep.
The sun and the moon were husband and wife but in the end they divorced because the moon couldn’t be faithful to his wife. The unfaithful moon fell in love with the daughter of Saulė and Perkūnas – Aušrinė. Saulė is associated with a stag that has nine horns and you can see this in folk art clothing and ornaments.
But, how does Saulė move through the sky? Every day she rides on a chariot with copper wheels pulled by horses who never get tired and never sweat. In the evening Saulė washes the horses in the sea while she sits on a hill holding the reigns in her hands. Because the sun is clearly responsible for the growth of plants, Lithuanian farmers prayed to Saulė at sunrise and sunset. A harmless green snake, or žaltys, was a special favorite of Saulė. It’s good luck to have a žaltys in your house and extremely bad luck to kill one.
So Romas, Raminta told me that žaltys is a way of cussing in a very soft way? Yeah, kind of like this – O! Žaltys! Yeah, that’s a very soft swear word.
On the last lesson we learned į kairę, to the left and į dešinę, to the right. These are examples of the accusative case or galininkas. Today we’ll begin a series of episodes focused on the accusative declension. As a matter of fact, episodes 40 and 43 were examples of the accusative case.
When we use the preposition, į or, to, we’re indicating motion or movement to something or someplace. We’re not talking about where something is located. We’re only talking about going to someplace. To do this we have to use galininkas. Galininkas is extremely common in Lithuanian and we’ll use it in other ways on future episodes. This is only one way to use it.
The accusative case or galininkas breaks down very easily like this; a word that ends in…
-a changes to –ą nosinė
Here are some examples of galininkas using words we’ve already used in previous episodes.
Kaip pasakyti lietuviškai? How do you say it in Lithuanian?
Lithuania or Lietuva changes to Lietuvą
So, there we have the basics of galininkas. Let’s go over some more examples.
the university universitetas
the airport oro uostas
the cathedral katedra
the street gatvė
the museum muziejus
the church bažnyčia
the store or the shop parduotuvė
the bookstore knygynas
an ale house alinė (or) aludė
Sidney, (Australia) Sidnėjus
coffee shop kavinė
a lounge svetainė
the basement rūsys
now we’ll say a word in vardininkas and you say į and add galininkas or the accusative declension. For example we’ll say, restoranas, and you reply, į restoraną. Here we go!
restoranas į restoraną
Great! That should be enough for a small introduction. On the next lesson we’ll continue working on galininkas and add some more vocabulary for our taxi trip.
Šaunu! Great! You made it to the end of another lesson! Šaunu!
I want to thank Romas for helping us by co-hosting this episode. It was an honor and a priviledge to have him on the show. Romai, maybe we can have you back soon and you can tell us a little about yourself. Romas is an interesting person.
Raminta and I hope you enjoyed this episode, we’re working hard on improving our audio and we hope to have many other co-hosts on Lithuanian Out Loud in order to give you a wide range of voices and regional accents. As a matter of fact, if you are a native Lithaunian speaker or if you know a native Lithuanian speaker who might like to be on an episode please get in touch with us. The welcome mat is always on the front porch.
Alright, that’s it for today, we’d like to thank you very much for listening, we appreciate it.
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I’m Jack and I’ve never met a Lithuanian I didn’t like. Viso gero! Sudie!