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Lithuanian Out Loud is a podcast series designed for fans of the Lithuanian language. Come along with native Lithuanian author/lawyer Raminta and her North-American husband, Jack. They'll teach you Lithuanian along with tidbits about the history and culture of Raminta's homeland - Lietuva!

Music: Vieux Farka Toure - Ana {Pocket Remix} by pocketproductions (c) copyright 2007 Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial license. http://dig.ccmixter.org/files/pocketproductions/8916 Ft: Pocket (Richard Jankovich)

Dec 25, 2009

Inagininkas  Instrumental Case

 

Hi there, I’m Raminta and I’m Jack and welcome back to Lithuanian Out Loud where we offer the world the Lithuanian language.

 

According to the article, “June 14, 1940. Why the Russians should apologize.”

On the 14th of June 1940, massive deportations of Lithuanians were started by the Soviet Union.  In one week 17,730 people were deported from Lithuania to Russian gulags.

The unfortunate Lithuanians selected for transport were intellectuals and academics, political activists, businessmen and successful farmers, medics, lawyers, military leaders, teachers, and religious leaders.

 

Families had one hour to collect 100 kilograms of belongings and were transported to any one of 57 train stations.  Common cattle cars awaited them for the long trip to Siberia.

The Soviets had planned to deport as much as 50% of the Lithuanian population but the Nazi invasion stopped their plans.  Many Lithuanians viewed the Germans as saviors because the German invasion stopped the Russians.

 

When the Soviets forced the Germans out of Lithuania the deportations resumed.  In 1948 alone more than 40,000 Lithuanians were shipped east in cattle cars; 11,066 were children.

 

Between 1940 and 1953 Lithuania lost one third of its population and the only thing that stopped the mass deportations was the death of Stalin in 1953.

 

Today, Russia refuses to discuss the matter and ignores Lithuania’s requests for apologies and reparations.  Lithuania is requesting, at a minimum, moral recognition of the issue.

 

We’ve already gone over these declensions:

 

the nominative      

vardininkas


the genitive           

kilmininkas


the accusative       

galininkas

 

the locative           

vietininkas

 

the vocative          

šauksmininkas

 

We’ve only got two more declensions remaining and we’ll do one of those today; 

 

įnagininkas – the instrumental case.

 

In this episode we’ll be throwing a lot of new stuff at you but don’t worry, we’ll give you plenty of examples so you can understand what’s being presented.  First off, we’ll go over some concepts.  Today’s program is only the first in a series covering the instrumental case.

 

We use the instrumental case in many different ways.  One way is to describe how one is transported, for example; to the restaurant we go by car or Rimantas goes to work by motorcycle.  The car is the instrument by which we go to the restaurant and the motorcycle is the instrument by which Rimantas goes to work.

 

When a noun is declined with įnagininkas or the instrumental case, the noun is the instrument of the sentence.  The instrumental case can be viewed as describing “by means of,” “by way of” or “using.”

 

Let’s go over the different instrumental endings or suffixes using singular nouns.  We’ll go over plural nouns in another episode.

 

First, here are the singular masculine noun endings or suffixes…

 

singular nouns that end in –as change to –u


singular nouns that end in –is change to –iu


singular nouns that end in –ys change to –iu


singular nouns that end in –us change to –umi


singular nouns that end in –uo can change to – eniu or –enimi

 

Now the feminine singular noun endings or suffixes…

 

singular nouns that end in –a change to –a


singular nouns that end in –ė change to –e


singular nouns that end in –is change to –imi


singular nouns that end in –uo, and there’s only one – sesuo, change to –eria

 

singular nouns that end in –ė, as in duktė, change to –eria or –erimi

 

before each group of examples we’ll go over some vocabulary

 

vocabulary žodynas

 

to travel                                                       

keliauti


to go or ride by means of transportation         

važiuoti


an automobile                                              

automobilis


a bus                                                          

autobusas

 

Valdemaras travels “by means of” a car  Valdemaras keliauja automobiliu Simonas travels “by way of” a car Simonas keliauja automobiliu Diana travels “using” a car Diana keliauja automobiliu

 

Violeta goes “by means of” a bus Violeta važiuoja autobusu Valentina goes “by way of” a bus Valentina važiuoja autobusu Veronika goes “using” a bus Veronika važiuoja autobusu 

 

The instrumental can also be used to describe movement “by way of,” “by means of,” or “using” a street, a path, a sidewalk, etcetera, or going through a park, a field, a valley, a tunnel, an alley, a river, a sea, a mountain pass, etcetera. 

 

vocabulary žodynas

 

to go for a walk                                      

pasivaikščioti

 

to go (on foot)                                        

eiti

 

a path                                                    

takas

 

a sidewalk                                              

šaligatvis

 

to swim                                                  

plaukti

 

a river                                                    

upė

 

Algis walks “by means of” the path          

Algis eina taku

 

Giedrius walks “by way of” the path        

Giedrius eina taku

 

Evaldas walks “using” the path                

Evaldas eina taku

 

Justinas goes for a walk “by means of” the sidewalk  

Justinas eina pasivaikščioti šaligatviu

 

Justas goes for a walk “by way of” the sidewalk        

Justas eina pasivaikščioti šaligatviu

 

Neringa goes for a walk “using” the sidewalk             

Neringa eina pasivaikščioti šaligatviu

 

a boat sails via the river                           

valtis plaukia upe

 

a ship sails using the river                        

laivas plaukia upe

 

a barge sails by means of the river            

barža plaukia upe

 

Now let’s talk about professions.  You can say, I am a doctor, or, aš esu gydytojas.  I’m a policeman, aš esu policininkas.  In these examples we are not using the instrumental case. 

 

Using the instrumental case we would say, I work as a doctor – aš dirbu gydytoju.  I work as a policeman – aš dirbu policininku.  A profession is the instrument “by way of” or “by means of” a person makes a living.  The key word in English here is the word, “as.”  I work as a pilot.  I work as a teacher.

 

vocabulary žodynas

 

a policeman, policewoman                                       

policininkas, policininkė

 

a pilot                                                     

lakūnas, lakūnė

 

a doctor                                                  

gydytojas, gydytoja

 

a lawyer                                                  

teisininkas, teisininkė

 

a teacher                                                 

mokytojas, mokytoja

 

a commentator                                        

komentatorius, komentatorė 

 

here we’ll compare phrases using vardininkas with phrases using įnagininkas

 

vardininkas

I am a policeman                                                    

aš esu policininkas

 

įnagininkas
I work “as” a policeman                                             

aš dirbu policininku

 

vardininkas
I am a pilot                                                              

aš esu lakūnas

 

įnagininkas
I work as a pilot                                                       

aš dirbu lakūnu

 

vardininkas
I am a doctor                                                             

aš esu gydytojas

 

įnagininkas
I work as a doctor                                                     

aš dirbu gydytoju

 

vardininkas
I am a lawyer                                                           

aš esu teisininkas

 

įnagininkas
I want to work “as” a lawyer                                      

aš noriu dirbti teisininku

 

vardininkas
I am a teacher                                                         

aš esu mokytojas

 

įnagininkas
I want to work “as” a teacher                                    

aš noriu dirbti mokytoju

 

vardininkas
Justas is a television comentator                                

Justas yra televizijos komentatorius

 

įnagininkas
Justas works as a television comentator                    

Justas dirba televizijos komentatoriumi

 

vardininkas
Evaldas is a controller                                              

Evaldas yra kontrolierius

 

įnagininkas
Evaldas works as a controller                                     

Evaldas dirba kontrolieriumi

 

Some prepositions require the instrumental case such as the word “with” or in Lithuanian – su. 

 

first, here’s some vocabulary

 

with                                       

su

 

bacon                                     

šoninė

 

to travel                                  

keliauti

 

to eat                                      

valgyti

 

ice cream                                

ledai

 

beef                                        

jautiena

 

knife                                       

peilis

 

fork                                        

šakutė

 

chocolate                                 

šokoladas

 

ammonia                                 

amoniakas

 

a shovel                                   

kastuvas

 

pleasure                                 

malonumas

 

to eat with a knife and fork       

valgyti su peiliu ir šakute

 

beef with bacon                        

jautiena su šonine

 

ice cream with chocolate            

ledai su šokoladu

 

a liquid mixed with ammonia      

skystis, sumaišytas su amoniaku 

 

Antanas works with a shovel      

Antanas dirba su kastuvu

 

I can live with Rimantas             

galiu gyventi su Rimantu

 

Diana can travel with Justinas     

Diana gali keliauti su Justinu

 

he works with pleasure               

jis dirba su malonumu

 

Alright, that does it for our introduction to using the instrumental.  On the next episode we’ll continue part II of exploring the instrumental case.  We’ll see you in 2010.  Happy New Year!

 

June 14, 1940. Why the Russians should apologize
http://irzikevicius.wordpress.com/2008/06/15/june-14-1940-why-the-russians-should-apologies/