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Lithuanian Out Loud is a podcast series designed for fans of the Lithuanian language. Come along with native Lithuanian author/lawyer Raminta and her North-American husband, Jack. They'll teach you Lithuanian along with tidbits about the history and culture of Raminta's homeland - Lietuva!

Music: Vieux Farka Toure - Ana {Pocket Remix} by pocketproductions (c) copyright 2007 Licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial license. Ft: Pocket (Richard Jankovich)

Dec 25, 2009

Inagininkas  Instrumental Case


Hi there, I’m Raminta and I’m Jack and welcome back to Lithuanian Out Loud where we offer the world the Lithuanian language.


According to the article, “June 14, 1940. Why the Russians should apologize.”

On the 14th of June 1940, massive deportations of Lithuanians were started by the Soviet Union.  In one week 17,730 people were deported from Lithuania to Russian gulags.

The unfortunate Lithuanians selected for transport were intellectuals and academics, political activists, businessmen and successful farmers, medics, lawyers, military leaders, teachers, and religious leaders.


Families had one hour to collect 100 kilograms of belongings and were transported to any one of 57 train stations.  Common cattle cars awaited them for the long trip to Siberia.

The Soviets had planned to deport as much as 50% of the Lithuanian population but the Nazi invasion stopped their plans.  Many Lithuanians viewed the Germans as saviors because the German invasion stopped the Russians.


When the Soviets forced the Germans out of Lithuania the deportations resumed.  In 1948 alone more than 40,000 Lithuanians were shipped east in cattle cars; 11,066 were children.


Between 1940 and 1953 Lithuania lost one third of its population and the only thing that stopped the mass deportations was the death of Stalin in 1953.


Today, Russia refuses to discuss the matter and ignores Lithuania’s requests for apologies and reparations.  Lithuania is requesting, at a minimum, moral recognition of the issue.


We’ve already gone over these declensions:


the nominative      


the genitive           


the accusative       



the locative           



the vocative          



We’ve only got two more declensions remaining and we’ll do one of those today; 


įnagininkas – the instrumental case.


In this episode we’ll be throwing a lot of new stuff at you but don’t worry, we’ll give you plenty of examples so you can understand what’s being presented.  First off, we’ll go over some concepts.  Today’s program is only the first in a series covering the instrumental case.


We use the instrumental case in many different ways.  One way is to describe how one is transported, for example; to the restaurant we go by car or Rimantas goes to work by motorcycle.  The car is the instrument by which we go to the restaurant and the motorcycle is the instrument by which Rimantas goes to work.


When a noun is declined with įnagininkas or the instrumental case, the noun is the instrument of the sentence.  The instrumental case can be viewed as describing “by means of,” “by way of” or “using.”


Let’s go over the different instrumental endings or suffixes using singular nouns.  We’ll go over plural nouns in another episode.


First, here are the singular masculine noun endings or suffixes…


singular nouns that end in –as change to –u

singular nouns that end in –is change to –iu

singular nouns that end in –ys change to –iu

singular nouns that end in –us change to –umi

singular nouns that end in –uo can change to – eniu or –enimi


Now the feminine singular noun endings or suffixes…


singular nouns that end in –a change to –a

singular nouns that end in –ė change to –e

singular nouns that end in –is change to –imi

singular nouns that end in –uo, and there’s only one – sesuo, change to –eria


singular nouns that end in –ė, as in duktė, change to –eria or –erimi


before each group of examples we’ll go over some vocabulary


vocabulary žodynas


to travel                                                       


to go or ride by means of transportation         


an automobile                                              


a bus                                                          



Valdemaras travels “by means of” a car  Valdemaras keliauja automobiliu Simonas travels “by way of” a car Simonas keliauja automobiliu Diana travels “using” a car Diana keliauja automobiliu


Violeta goes “by means of” a bus Violeta važiuoja autobusu Valentina goes “by way of” a bus Valentina važiuoja autobusu Veronika goes “using” a bus Veronika važiuoja autobusu 


The instrumental can also be used to describe movement “by way of,” “by means of,” or “using” a street, a path, a sidewalk, etcetera, or going through a park, a field, a valley, a tunnel, an alley, a river, a sea, a mountain pass, etcetera. 


vocabulary žodynas


to go for a walk                                      



to go (on foot)                                        



a path                                                    



a sidewalk                                              



to swim                                                  



a river                                                    



Algis walks “by means of” the path          

Algis eina taku


Giedrius walks “by way of” the path        

Giedrius eina taku


Evaldas walks “using” the path                

Evaldas eina taku


Justinas goes for a walk “by means of” the sidewalk  

Justinas eina pasivaikščioti šaligatviu


Justas goes for a walk “by way of” the sidewalk        

Justas eina pasivaikščioti šaligatviu


Neringa goes for a walk “using” the sidewalk             

Neringa eina pasivaikščioti šaligatviu


a boat sails via the river                           

valtis plaukia upe


a ship sails using the river                        

laivas plaukia upe


a barge sails by means of the river            

barža plaukia upe


Now let’s talk about professions.  You can say, I am a doctor, or, aš esu gydytojas.  I’m a policeman, aš esu policininkas.  In these examples we are not using the instrumental case. 


Using the instrumental case we would say, I work as a doctor – aš dirbu gydytoju.  I work as a policeman – aš dirbu policininku.  A profession is the instrument “by way of” or “by means of” a person makes a living.  The key word in English here is the word, “as.”  I work as a pilot.  I work as a teacher.


vocabulary žodynas


a policeman, policewoman                                       

policininkas, policininkė


a pilot                                                     

lakūnas, lakūnė


a doctor                                                  

gydytojas, gydytoja


a lawyer                                                  

teisininkas, teisininkė


a teacher                                                 

mokytojas, mokytoja


a commentator                                        

komentatorius, komentatorė 


here we’ll compare phrases using vardininkas with phrases using įnagininkas



I am a policeman                                                    

aš esu policininkas


I work “as” a policeman                                             

aš dirbu policininku


I am a pilot                                                              

aš esu lakūnas


I work as a pilot                                                       

aš dirbu lakūnu


I am a doctor                                                             

aš esu gydytojas


I work as a doctor                                                     

aš dirbu gydytoju


I am a lawyer                                                           

aš esu teisininkas


I want to work “as” a lawyer                                      

aš noriu dirbti teisininku


I am a teacher                                                         

aš esu mokytojas


I want to work “as” a teacher                                    

aš noriu dirbti mokytoju


Justas is a television comentator                                

Justas yra televizijos komentatorius


Justas works as a television comentator                    

Justas dirba televizijos komentatoriumi


Evaldas is a controller                                              

Evaldas yra kontrolierius


Evaldas works as a controller                                     

Evaldas dirba kontrolieriumi


Some prepositions require the instrumental case such as the word “with” or in Lithuanian – su. 


first, here’s some vocabulary








to travel                                  



to eat                                      



ice cream                                


















a shovel                                   






to eat with a knife and fork       

valgyti su peiliu ir šakute


beef with bacon                        

jautiena su šonine


ice cream with chocolate            

ledai su šokoladu


a liquid mixed with ammonia      

skystis, sumaišytas su amoniaku 


Antanas works with a shovel      

Antanas dirba su kastuvu


I can live with Rimantas             

galiu gyventi su Rimantu


Diana can travel with Justinas     

Diana gali keliauti su Justinu


he works with pleasure               

jis dirba su malonumu


Alright, that does it for our introduction to using the instrumental.  On the next episode we’ll continue part II of exploring the instrumental case.  We’ll see you in 2010.  Happy New Year!


June 14, 1940. Why the Russians should apologize